Herāt, Afghanistan

Reading Time: 4 minutes

Herāt, Afghanistan

Region: Herat

Geographic Coordinates: 34.341900, 62.203100
Temperature Range: -10.0°C to 40.0°C (14°F to 104°F)
Climate: Dry and hot summers, with mild winters and occasional snowfall.
Population: 556205
Language: Dari

Herāt is a city located in western Afghanistan, Near the border with Iran. It is the third-largest city in Afghanistan and has a rich history dating back to ancient times. The city was once an important center of trade on the Silk Road, Connecting China and Europe. Today, Herāt remains an important cultural and economic hub in Afghanistan. One of the most notable features of Herāt is its architecture. The city boasts numerous beautiful mosques, Mausoleums, And other buildings that reflect its long history as a center of Islamic culture.

One such example is the Jama Masjid (Friday Mosque), Which was built during the 12th century under Sultan Ghiyas-ud-Din Ghori. The mosque features intricate tile work and calligraphy that showcase Persian influence. Another notable feature of Herāt is its bazaars or markets. These bustling centers are filled with vendors selling everything from spices to textiles to jewelry. One popular market is Qaysari Bazaar, Which dates back to medieval times and features traditional Afghan handicrafts such as carpets, Pottery, And brassware. Herāt also has several museums that offer visitors insight into Afghan culture and history.

The National Museum of Herat houses artifacts from various periods in Afghan history including pre-Islamic times up until modern-day Afghanistan. The city also hosts several festivals throughout the year that celebrate Afghan culture including music, Dance, Poetry recitation competitions known as mushairas among others. Despite being surrounded by conflict-prone areas for decades now due to its proximity to Iran-Pakistan border region; however it has managed to maintain relative stability compared with other parts of Afghanistan thanks largely due to efforts made by local authorities who have worked hard at maintaining peace through engagement with local communities.

Herat stands out for being one of those few cities in Afghanistan where artistry thrives alongside business enterprises; it’s also home not just too many historic landmarks but also a thriving cultural scene that is sure to captivate anyone who visits.

Important Landmarks

  1. Herat Citadel (Qala Ikhtyaruddin)
  2. Friday Mosque of Herat (Jami Masjid)
  3. Musalla Complex
  4. Gawhar Shad Mausoleum
  5. Khwaja Abdullah Ansari Shrine
  6. Chehel Sotoun Palace
  7. Minaret of Jam (located about 200 km from Herat)
  8. Herat Regional Museum
  9. Bagh-e-Melat Park
  10. Tomb of Malek Bahram

Primary Industries

  1. Agriculture
  2. Mining
  3. Construction
  4. Trade

Herāt is known for its production of high-quality fruits and vegetables such as:

  • Grapes
  • Pomegranates
  • Melons

The city also has significant reserves of natural gas and minerals such as:

  • Marble
  • Copper
  • Iron ore
  • Gold

In recent years there has been a surge in construction activities including the building of:

  • Commercial complexes
  • Residential apartments

Trade is another important sector with Herat being an important transit point for goods moving between Afghanistan and Iran.

Noteable History

  1. The city was a major center of the Timurid Empire in the 15th century under the rule of Shah Rukh.
  2. In 1507, Herāt was conquered by the Safavid Empire and became a key center for Persian arts and culture.
  3. The city was also an important hub on the Silk Road trade route between China and Europe.
  4. In 1839, during the First Anglo-Afghan War, British forces captured Herāt but were later forced to retreat due to a rebellion led by Afghan ruler Dost Mohammad Khan.
  5. During the Soviet-Afghan War (1979-1989), Herāt became a battleground between Soviet forces and Afghan resistance fighters known as mujahideen.
  6. After the fall of Taliban regime in Afghanistan in 2001, Herāt became an important center for reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan.
  7. Notable people from Herāt include Abu’l-Fazl ibn Mubarak (a courtier and historian at Akbar’s court), Khwaja Abdullah Ansari (a Sufi mystic poet), Rabia Balkhi (an early Persian poetess) among others.

Museums and Things To See

  1. Herat Citadel or Citadel of Alexander
  2. Friday Mosque of Herat
  3. Khwaja Abdullah Ansari Shrine
  4. Gawhar Shad Mausoleum and Mosque
  5. Herat Regional Museum
  6. Timurid Palace Complex
  7. Jami’ Mosque of Herat
  8. Qala Ikhtyaruddin Fortress
  9. Tomb of Khwaja Parsa
  10. Minaret of Jam (located about 150 km from Herat)

Sports Teams

  1. Herāt, located in western Afghanistan, has a rich history of sports with football (soccer) being the most popular sport in the region.
  2. Over the years, several football clubs have been established including Shaheen Asmayee and De Abasin Sape which have won domestic titles and participated in international competitions.
  3. Toofan Harirod has a long history of participation at various levels of Afghan football competitions.
  4. Other sports such as volleyball, basketball, cricket are also played by local teams at amateur levels.
  5. Ongoing security concerns across different parts of Afghanistan including Herat province and limited resources for infrastructure development for sports facilities can pose challenges for young athletes to pursue their dreams professionally beyond their hometowns or regions within Afghanistan’s borders.

Cultural Events

  1. Herat International Women’s Film Festival: This festival celebrates the achievements of women in film and is held annually in March.
  2. Eid al-Fitr: This is a religious festival that marks the end of Ramadan and is celebrated by Muslims throughout Afghanistan.
  3. Afghan New Year (Nowruz): This is a traditional spring festival that marks the beginning of the new year according to the Persian calendar, usually celebrated on March 21st.
  4. Sufi Music Festival: This festival celebrates Sufi music, poetry, and dance traditions and takes place annually in September.
  5. Herat Book Fair: A book fair held annually in October to promote literacy and reading culture among Afghans.
  6. National Handicrafts Exhibition: An exhibition showcasing traditional handicrafts from different regions of Afghanistan held every year during July-August.
  7. International Cultural Festival: A three-day event featuring music, dance performances from different countries around the world held every year during August-September.


  • Kabuli Pulao – a rice dish with lamb or beef, raisins, and carrots.
  • Mantu – steamed dumplings filled with ground beef or lamb and onions.
  • Ashak – boiled dumplings filled with leeks or scallions and topped with yogurt sauce.
  • Qorma e Sabzi – spinach stew made with lamb or beef.

Some popular restaurants in Herāt include:

  1. Afghan House Restaurant
  2. Al Fakhar Restaurant
  3. Kabul Palace Restaurant
  4. Bostan-e-Sabz Restaurant
  5. Mirwais Janan Restaurant

Parks and Recreation

  1. Ghazi Amanullah Khan Park – a popular park with a playground, walking paths, and picnic areas.
  2. Citadel Park – a historic park located near the famous Herat Citadel.
  3. Jahan Nama Park – another popular park with gardens, fountains, and walking paths.
  4. Herat Stadium – a sports complex that hosts soccer matches and other events.
  5. Bagh-e-Melat Park – a large green space with trees, benches, and walking paths.
  6. Qala Ikhtyaruddin Cultural Center – an arts center that offers workshops and performances.
  7. Bazaar-e-Herat – a bustling market where visitors can shop for souvenirs or sample local cuisine.
  8. Zindagi Amooz Museum of Science & Technology- an interactive museum where visitors can learn about science through hands-on exhibits.

Note: Due to ongoing security concerns in Afghanistan, it is recommended to check the current situation before planning any travel or visits to these locations.


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